Green’s Dictionary of Slang

Abbott’s Priory n.

also Abbott’s Park
[Sir Charles Abbott (1762–1832), Lord Chief Justice (1818–32). The King’s Bench prison was generically the Lodge or the Priory, and its ‘given’ name varied according to the current Lord Chief Justice; thus before 1818 ‘Abbott’ had been ‘Ellenborough’, f. the previous office-holder]

the King’s Bench prison; thus Abbott’s teeth, the spikes that topped the prison wall.

[UK]‘An Amateur’ Real Life in London I 377: Persons who know no more of law than what they have learned in Abbot’s Park*, or on board the Fleet* [*Abbot’s Park—The King’s Bench; *On Board the Fleet—The Fleet Prison]. [Ibid.] 550: They can uninterruptedly make up their minds whether to give bail, put in appearance and defend the suit, or take a trip to Abbott’s Priory.
[UK]W. Clarke Every Night Book 52: If the amateur of heavy wet should call upon some luckless wight in Abbott’s Priory [...] we recommend him [...] to take beer at the Brace.
[UK]Egan Finish to the Adventures of Tom and Jerry (1889) 284: We content ourselves with the variety of sports catered for our amusement at ‘Tenterden Park Races!’* [*Formerly denominated Abbott’s Priory].
[Aus]Satirist & Sporting Chron. (Sydney) 25 Feb. 3/2: For though oft he has dodged, / He’s now safely lodged / in Abbott’s Priory.
[UK]Flash Dict. in Sinks of London Laid Open.